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沈阳新航道 > 托福 > 托福阅读童子功,几招搞定阅读指代题

托福阅读童子功,几招搞定阅读指代题

来源:沈阳新航道      浏览:      发布日期:2018-07-27 16:58

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  托福阅读指代题考查辨认文中单词或词组之间指代关系的能力。一般来说,这类关系涉及代词与先行词之间的关系,有时也涉及关系代词,如 which的指代。
 
  文中被考的代词或词组加了阴影 (highlighted)。虽然4个选项都来自原文,但是只有一个是代词的真正指代对象。常考的代词有they, this, it, others, which 等。问题形式为:The word (or phase) X in the passage refers to.
 

  做题技巧:前往搜索,代入验证

  初步判断
  1. 主从复合句中的指代
  在主从复合句中,第二句的代词主语经常指代第一句的名词主语(有时是宾语),表示话题的延续。
 
  例如:
  College students asked to predict their own future compared to that of their classmates believed, on average, that theywere more likely graduate higher in their class, get a better job, earn a higher salary, have a happier marriage, and bear a gifted child.
 
  The word “they” in line 2 refers to
  A. students
  B. classmates
  C. future
  D. Salary
 
  从句 that they...中的代词主语 they 指代主语的名词主语 college students,因此第一个选项正确。
 
  2. 并列动词中的指代
  如果一个句子中有两个并列的动词,第二个动词的代词宾语经常指代前一个动词后的名词宾语。
 
  例如:
  Artists perceive the distinction between public and private spaces, and take that into consideration when carrying out their public commissions.
The word “that” refers to
  A. Space
  B. audience
  C. distinction
  D. commission
 
  句子中两个并列的动词是 perceive 和 take (into consideration),其中 perceive 的宾语是 distinction,而 take 的宾语是that。根据上面所说的技巧,that 指代 distinction,答案是C。
 
  3. 所有格的指代
  所有格代词经常指代其前面与其最靠近的名词。
 
  例如:
  Folk-made objects are replaced be their popular equivalent, often because the popular item is more quickly or cheaply manufactured, is easier to use, or endows the owner with greater prestige.
 
  The word “their” refers to
  A. nation
  B. subjects
  C. folk
  D. objects
 
  根据所有格的指代的做题技巧,their 指代前面位置最靠近的名词 objects,因此D正确。
 
  4. 关系代词的指代
  关系代词通常指代从句的先行词,如of which..., in which..., from which...等结构中的which都指代先行词。
 
  例如:
  When growing on rock surfaces, lichens secrete acids that dissolve the minerals, contributing to the process of weathering by which rocks are slowly turned to soil.
 
  The word “which” in the passage refers to
  A. the process of weathering
  B. growing on rock surfaces
  C. dissolving the minerals
  D. being turned to soil
  关系代词 which 指代先行词the process of weathering,A正确。
 
  代入验证
  在根据上面所说的各种情况作出判断之后,代入原文验证,看语义、逻辑和语法是否通顺,如果通顺就是正确答案。

  简单几步,托福阅读中的指代题就可以轻松的解决啦~如果你还有其他疑问,不妨来沈阳新航道托福考试频道找找看呦~

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