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雅思写作评分标准中的连贯与一致性到底怎么拿分?

作者:沈阳新航道 2021-10-25 10:45
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不知大家是否有过一个困惑雅思作文评分标准中的连贯一致度-Coherence and Cohesion到底是什么,我到底应该怎么做,才能得到这一部分的分数?


网上的各种材料和老师讲的连贯一致度,似乎都止于and,however,moreover,nevertheless….但是用来用去,还是在连贯一致度上被无情的扣掉分数


逻辑连接词到底怎么写才能够用到考官心里去,在cc部分取得一个较高的分数呢?其实小编觉得,真的把这个点搞明白的老师,可能也不多


当时在澳洲参加雅思主办方之一IDP培训时候,小编对这一点有过一个比较深入的学习和分析,那么今天就来给大家分享一下哦


01评分标准中的描述


首先先来看一看,9分段CC的写法:


uses cohesion in such a way that it attracts no attention


skilfully manages paragraphing


从这一段的描述中,我们不难看出,其实CC就是在考察两个点


一个是the logical linking of parts and sentences-cohesion


一个是the structure of the whole essay-paragraphing-coherence


我们就这两个点,分别进行一下解读


02Cohesion


Cohesion是什么?


Cohesion refers to the way texts use grammar and vocabulary to‘stick’or‘glue’ideas together.


This is done through articles(a/an/the),pronouns(it/this/these/that/those/etc..),word families(analyse/analysis)/summary nouns(approach/trend/issue)and synonyms(effect/consequence).In addition to these above key areas,relative clauses,ellipsis and connectors are also important.


-AE(Academic English UK)


Cohension是指我们使用词汇或者语法结构作为手段去将想法观点有逻辑的串联在一起


从句/冠词/代词/词群/概括型的名词/同义词都是我们可以实现cohension的有效工具


所以大家可以看到,连贯性,不是去数到底我用了几个连接词,而是更加广泛的概念,去看整个文段,整个文章通过各种词汇和语法手段串联观点的前后起承转合。


举些例子:


代词


代词:It/this/these/that/those/they


Example:Melbourne is situated in the south east of Australia.It has a population of 4,442,919 people.


词型转变


Using other forms of the key verb/noun:


Example:He analysed the data and found that….This analysis provided evidence that…


总结概括型大名词


使用总结概括性的大名词(This/These+概括名词+…)去指代前面的句子内容


Example:Many psychologists have been investigating the key reasons for youth crime for many years.Their research seems to suggest that a lack of communication between children and parents is one of the key issues.


Example:Economists believe that the next financial crisis will be from Student Loan debt.This understanding/assumption/thought/knowledge is also shared with financial experts.


小编在这里给大家总结一下在咱们雅思写作中,我们可以常用的概括型大名词:


approach,analysis,result,event,stage,evidence,subject,aspect,experience,problem,system,category,fact,procedure,challenge,factor,tendency,change,topic,trend,project,feature,purpose,trend,issue,understanding,difficulty,item


这些名词都是在大作文或者小作文的很多话题之前,会涉及到的,小编以后发范文分析时候,也会给大家标注出来,方便大家学习


关系从句


使用which/that/where/who引导的关系从句,连接句子表达意思,也可以帮助实现cohesion


According to the government report,2000 people voted in this election,which was the lowest number of people in the history of voting.


连接词:


使用多种多样的linking words,将前后意思串联起来


linking words连接词,各位小伙伴们已经很熟悉了


比如表示对比的however,in contrast


进行举例的for example,for instance


表示原因的owing to,since


表示强调的undoubtedly,in particular等


Linking words很多,小编就不在这里一一列举了


如果有需要完整的清单,可以直接私信小编,后台回复关键词「连接词」即可获得哦


通过以上具体的解读,小伙伴们现在肯定对于到底什么是Cohesion有了清晰的了解啦


我们再来看看IDP考官对于Cohesion给分标准的原话:


Cohesive devices might be pronouns(it/this/those etc.),conjunctions(while,if,because etc.)or relative pronouns(which,where,whose etc.).


We focus on how these words are used to link ideas in a sentence.


所以想在此部分提分的方法就是:


做段落书写练习,每次写一个段落,写完后用记号笔把自己使用过的代词,词性转换,概括型大名词,从句,连接词等等;然后仔细看一看这些词是否起到了很好的观点句意之间的连接作用。


除了逻辑连接词,毕竟这些本应该出现在这里的各个词性的词和语法结构更能真正无限趋近于9分标准中的attracts no attention


03Coherence


Coherence是什么?


Coherence is concerned with how a writer guides the reader through the argument using logical connectors.It can be achieved by using signposting phrases.A signpost is a phrase that a writer or speaker uses to indicate different stages or parts of a written or spoken text.


-AE(Academic English UK)


Coherence这个事,对于我们小烤鸭而言,我们可以简单的把它理解成两个事情


1)signposting phrases


2)paragraphing


signposting phrases


举个例子:


Example:In contrast to the conclusion drawn by the researcher,his colleague showed that the connection between the factors was not causal in most circumstances.


Example:The main arguments for Brexit were to regain sovereignty and to remove restrictions of the single market to access global markets.


我们看到signposting phrases也就是“指路短语”其实就是告诉读者接下来要进入到哪一个观点了


In contrast to-要进入相反观点了


The main arguments for-要给主要的一些论点了


按照句法功能来看,“指路短语”可以分为8大类


highlighting or emphasizing a point


Changing direction or creating a comparison


Acknowledging something and moving to a different point


Following a line of reasoning


Summarizing


Giving an example


Adding a similar point


Being more specific


这8个大类都有对应的可以使用的“指路短语”,由于页面有限,内容偏多,小编就不在这里罗列了


paragraphing


无论是大作文还是小作文,在写雅思写作文章时,各位同学一定要记住合理分段


我们来看一下IDP考官对于分段这一部分的解读:


Paragarphing is logical.As a general rule,one paragraph should have at least 3 sentences(not include opening and ending),and shouldn't have more than about 5 sentences.


When you start a new thought,that's when you start a new paragarph.Often you finish one paragraph by hinting at what the next paragraph will be about.


雅思写作大作文一般采取4段式或者5段式


除了开头段结尾段外,大家一定要记住,每一个主体段都要有一个主题句,一个段落中可以有1-2个分论点


当一方观点描述完转到下一个观点时要另起一段


好啦,以上,小编带着大家非常详细的剖析了到底雅思写作评分标准中的coherence and cohesion是指什么


简要回顾


cohesion


use grammar and vocabulary to‘stick’or‘glue’ideas together


代词,词性转换,概括型大名词,从句,连接词等等,自然的连接表达观点


coherence


使用signposting phrases注意paragraphing


linking words和signposting phrases的清单,公号后台回复关键字「连接词」获得


今天的文章内容非常的多,需要慢慢消化理解,可以收藏起来,后期每次写作文和复习的时候慢慢消化理解。


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